DRI / DIRECTORY / DOUGLAS LOWENTHAL
Douglas Lowenthal Profile Photo
Dr. Douglas Lowenthal
Research Professor Emeritus

Professional Interests

Dr. Lowenthal’s research interests included interactions among natural and anthropogenic aerosols, cloud microphysical properties, snow formation, and aerosol light extinction and visibility. A long-term study supported by EPRI investigated the physical and hygroscopic properties of organic carbon aerosols in U.S. national parks as they relate to the IMPROVE equation, a tool used to establish compliance under the U.S. EPA Regional Haze rule. Dr. Lowenthal is principle investigator on a National Science Foundation study to elucidate snow growth processes in mixed-phase wintertime orographic clouds using stable water isotopes to follow gas-liquid-ice phase transitions and a co-investigator with Gannet Hallar on a Department of Energy project to interpret observations during StormVEx (Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment).

Research Areas

  • Atmospheric Chemistry
  • Air Pollution
  • Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions

Media Coverage of Scientific Research

Education

Degree Year Institution Area
Ph.D. 1986 Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island Atmospheric Chemistry
M.S. 1976 Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island Chemical Oceanography
B.S. 1970 Tufts University Philosophy-Biology

Keywords

cloud-aerosol interactions, air pollution, visibility, atmospheric chemistry

 

Publications
2019
Lowenthal, D. H., Hallar, A. G., David, R. O., McCubbin, I. B., Borys, R. D., Mace, G. G. (2019). Mixed-phase orographic cloud microphysics during StormVEx and IFRACS, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5387-5401, 19, 10.5194/acp-19-5387-2019

Petersen, R. C., Hallar, A. G., McCubbin, I. B., Ogren, J. A., Andrews, E., Lowenthal, D. H., Gorder, R., Purcell, R. G., Sleeth, D., Novosselov, I. (2019). Numerical, Wind-Tunnel, and Atmospheric Evaluation of a Turbulent Ground-Based Inlet Sampling System, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 53 (6), 712-727, 10.1080/02786826.2019.1602718

2017
Taylor, N., Collins, D., Lowenthal, D. H., McCubbin, I. B., Hallar, A. G., Samburova, V., Zielinska, B. K., Kumar, N., Mazzoleni, L. (2017). Hygroscopic Growth of Water Soluble Organic Carbon Isolated from Atmospheric Aerosol Collected at U.S. National Parks and Storm Peak Laboratory, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17 (4), 2555-2571, 10.5194/acp-17-2555-2017

Hallar, A. G., Molotch, N. P., Hand, J. L., Livneh, B., McCubbin, I. B., Petersen, R., Michalsky, J., Lowenthal, D. H., Kunkel, K. E. (2017). Impacts of Increasing Aridity and Wildfires on Aerosol Loading in the Intermountain Western U.S., Environ. Res. Lett., 12 (1), Article No. 014006, 10.1088/1748-9326/aa510a

Gertler, A. W., Labib, M., Lowenthal, D. H. (2017). Air quality issues in megacities: the challenge of Cairo, Egypt, EM Magazine (April), 15-19

Taylor, N. F., Collins, D. R., Lowenthal, D. H., Zielinska, B. K., Samburova, V., Kumar, N., Hallar, A. G., Mazzoleni, L. R., McCubbin, I. B. (2017). Hygroscopic growth of water soluble organic carbon isolated from atmospheric aerosol collected at U.S. national parks and Storm Peak Laboratory, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17 (4), 2555-2571, 10.5194/acp-17-2555-2017

2016
Hallar, A. G., Petersen, R., McCubbin, I. B., Lowenthal, D. H., Lee, S., Andrews, E., Yu, F. (2016). Climatology of New Particle Formation and Corresponding Precursors at Storm Peak Laboratory, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 16 (3), 816-826, 10.4209/aaqr.2015.05.0341

Lowenthal, D. H., Hallar, A. G., McCubbin, I. B., David, R. O., Borys, R. D., Blossey, P., Muhlbauer, A., Kuang, Z., Moore, M. (2016). Isotopic Fractionation in Wintertime Orographic Clouds. I: Isotopic Measurements, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 33 (12), 2663-2678, 10.1175/JTECH-D-15-0233.1

Lowenthal, D. H., Kumar, N. (2016). Evaluation of the IMPROVE equation for estimating aerosol light extinction, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 66 (7), 726-737, 10.1080/10962247.2016.1178187

Lowenthal, D. H., Kumar, N. (2016). Evaluation of the IMPROVE Equation for estimating aerosol light extinction, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 66 (7), 726-737, 10.1080/10962247.2016.1178187

2015
Chen, L.-W.A., Chow, J. C., Wang, X., Robles, J. A., Sumlin, B. J., Lowenthal, D. H., Zimmermann, R., Watson, J. G. (2015). Multi-wavelength optical measurement to enhance thermal/optical analysis for carbonaceous aerosol, Atmos.Meas.Tech.., 8, 451-461

Lowenthal, D. H., Zielinska, B. K., Samburova, V., Collins, D., Taylor, N., Kumar, N. (2015). Evaluation of Assumptions for Estimating Chemical Light Extinction at U.S. National Parks, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 65 (3), 249-260

Kristensen, T. B., Du, L., Nguyen, Q. T., Nojgaard, J. K., Bender Koch, C., Faurskov Nielsen, O., Hallar, A. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Nekat, B., van Pinxteren, D., Herrmann, H., Glasius, M., Kjaergaard, H. G., Bilde, M. (2015). Chemical Properties of HULIS from Different Environments, J. Atmos. Chem., 72 (1), 65-80

Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Chen, L.-W.A., Wang, X., Watson, J. G. (2015). Mass reconstruction methods for PM2.5: A review, Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, 8, 243-263

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Chen, L.-W.A., Shaw, S., Edgerton, E. S., Blanchard, C. L. (2015). PM2.5 source apportionment with organic markers in the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Study, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 65 (9), 1104-1108

Lowenthal, D. H., Kumar, N. (2015). Evaluation of Advanced IMPROVE Studies, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. (submitted 12/10/15)

2014
Lowenthal, D. H., Gertler, A. W., Labib, M. W. (2014). Particulate matter source apportionment in Cairo: recent measurements and comparison with previous studies, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 11, 657-670, 10.1007/s13762-013-0272-6

Gargava, P., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H. (2014). Speciated PM10 Emission Inventory for Delhi, India, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 14, 1515-1526, 10.4209/aaqr.2013.02.0047

Lowenthal, D. H., Zielinska, B. K., Samburova, V., Collins, D., Taylor, N., Kumar, N. (2014). Evaluation of Assumptions for Estimating Chemical Light Extinction at U.S. National Parks, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 65 (3), 249-260, 10.1080/10962247.2014.986307

2013
Hallar, A. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Clegg, S. L., Samburova, V., Taylor, N., Mazzoleni, L. R., Zielinska, B. K., Kristensen, T. B., Chirokova, G., McCubbin, I. B., Dodson, C. D., Collins, D. (2013). Chemical and hygroscopic properties of aerosol organics at Storm Peak Laboratory, . J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 4767-4779, 10.1002/jgrd.50373

Saleeby, S. M., Cotton, W. R., Lowenthal, D. H., Messina, J. (2013). Aerosol Impacts on the Microphysical Growth Processes of Orographic Snowfall, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52, 834-852

Samburova, V., Hallar, A. G., Mazzoleni, L. R., Saranjampour, P., Lowenthal, D. H., Kohl, S. D., Zielinska, B. K. (2013). Composition of water-soluble organic carbon in nonurban atmospheric aerosol collected at the Storm Peak Laboratory, Environ. Chem, 10, 370-380, 10.1071/EN13079

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Wang, X., Lowenthal, D. H., Kohl, S. D., Gronstal, S. B. (2013). Characterization of real-world emissions from nonroad mining trucks in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region during October, 2010, Wood Buffalo Environmental Association: Ft. McMurray, AL

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Wang, X., Lowenthal, D. H., Kohl, S. D., Gronstal, S. B. (2013). Characterization of real-world emissions from nonroad mining trucks in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region during October, 2010, Desert Research Institute: Reno, NV

Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Watson, J. G., Chen, L.-W.A. (2013). Source apportionment of SEARCH PM2.5 measurements with organic markers, Desert Research Institute: Reno, NV

2012
Kristensen, T., Wex, H., Nekat, B., Nøjgaard, J. K., van Pinxteren, D., Lowenthal, D. H., Mazzoleni, L. R., Dieckmann, K., Koch, C. B., Mentel, T. F., Herrmann, H., Hallar, A. G., Stratmann, F., Bilde, M. (2012). Hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of HULIS from different environments, J. Geo. Res.- Atmospheres, 117 (D22)

Mazzoleni, L. R., Saranjampour, P., Dalbec, M. M., Hallar, A. G., Zielinska, B. K., Lowenthal, D. H., Kohl, S. D. (2012). Identification of Water-Soluble Organic Carbon in Nonurban Aerosols using Ultrahigh-Resolution FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry: Organic Anions, Environ. Chem., 9 (3), 285-297

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Chen, L.-W.A., Wang, X. (2012). Reformulation of PM 2.5 mass reconstruction assumptions for the San Joaquin Valley: Literature review, Desert Research Institute: Reno, NV

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Chen, L.-W.A., Wang, X. (2012). Reformulation of PM 2.5 mass reconstruction assumptions for the San Joaquin Valley, Desert Research Institute: Reno, NV

2011
Hallar, A. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Chirokova, G., Borys, R. D., Wiedinmyer, C. (2011). Persistent daily new particle formation at a mountain-top location, Atmos Environ, 45 (24), 4111-4115, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.04.044

Koracin, D. R., Vellore, R., Lowenthal, D. H., Watson, J. G., Koracin, J., McCord, T. E., DuBois, D. W., Chen, L.-W.A., Kumar, N., Knipping, E. M., Wheeler, N. J., Craig, K., Reid, S. (2011). Regional source identification using Lagrangian stochastic particle dispersion and HYSPLIT backward-trajectory models, J Air & Waste Manage Assoc, 61, 660-672, 10.3155/1047-3289.61.6.660

Lowenthal, D. H., Borys, R. D., Cotton, W., Saleeby, S. M., Cohn, S. A., Brown, W. O. (2011). The altitude of snow growth by riming and vapor deposition in mixed-phase orographic clouds, Atmos. Environ., 45 (2), 519-522, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.09.061

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Chen, L.-W.A., Lowenthal, D. H., Fujita, E. M., Kuhns, H. D., Sodeman, D. A., Campbell, D. E., Moosmüller, H., Zhu, D., Motallebi, N. (2011). Particulate Emission Factors for Mobile Fossil Fuel and Biomass Combustion Sources, Sci Total Environ, 409 (12), 2384-2396, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.02.041

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Chen, L.-W.A., Lowenthal, D. H., Motallebi, N. (2011). PM2.5 source profiles for black and organic carbon emission inventories, Atmos.Environ., 5407-5414

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Sodeman, D., Lowenthal, D. H., Chang, M., Park, K., Wang, X. (2011). Comparison of four scanning mobility particle sizers at the Fresno supersite, Particuology, 204-209

Koracin, D. R., Vellore, R., Lowenthal, D. H., Watson, J. G., Koracin, J., McCord, T. E., DuBois, D. W., Chen, L.-W.A., Kumar, N., Knipping, E. M., Wheeler, N. J., Craig, K., Reid, S. (2011). Regional Source Identification Using Lagrangian Stochastic Particle Dispersion and HYSPLIT Backward-Trajectory Models, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 61 (6), 660-672, 10.3155/1047-3289.61.6.660

Taylor, N. F., Collins, D. R., Spencer, C. W., Lowenthal, D. H., Zielinska, B. K., Samburova, V., Kumar, N. (2011). Measurement of ambient aerosol hydration state at Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southeastern United States, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 12085-12107, 10.5194/acp-11-12085-2011

2010
Chen, L.-W.A., Lowenthal, D. H., Watson, J. G., Koracin, D. R., Kumar, N., Knipping, E., Wheeler, N., Craig, K., Reid, S. (2010). Toward effective source apportionment using positive matrix factorization: Experiments with simulated PM2.5 data, J.Air Waste Manage.Assoc., 43-54

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Chen, L.-W.A., Motallebi, N. (2010). Black and organic carbon emission inventories: Review and application to California, J.Air Waste Manage.Assoc., 60 (4), 497-507

Lowenthal, D. H., Watson, J. G., Koracin, D. R., Chen, L.-W.A., DuBois, D. W., Vellore, R., Kumar, N., Knipping, E., Wheeler, N., Craig, K., Reid, S. (2010). Evaluation of regional scale receptor modeling, J.Air Waste Manage.Assoc., 60 (1), 26-42

Chen, L.-W.A., Lowenthal, D. H., Watson, J. G., Koracin, D. R., Kumar, N., Knipping, E. M., Wheeler, N., Craig, K., Reid, S. (2010). Toward Effective Source Apportionment Using Positive Matrix Factorization: Experiments with Simulated PM2.5 Data, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 60 (1), 43-54, 10.3155/1047-3289.60.1.43

2009
Abu-Allaban, M., Lowenthal, D. H., Gertler, A. W., Labib, M. (2009). Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds in Cairo’s Ambient Air, Environ Monitor Assess, 157 (1-4), 179-189, 10.1007/s10661-008-0526-9

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Doraiswamy, P., Chen, L.-W.A., Sodeman, D. A., Lowenthal, D. H., Arnott, W. P., Motallebi, N. (2009). Aerosol light absorption, black carbon, and elemental carbon measurements at the Fresno Supersite, California, Atmos Res, 93 (4), 874-887

Lowenthal, D. H., Zielinska, B. K., Mason, B., Samy, S., Samburova, V., Collins, D., Spencer, C., Taylor, N., Allen, J. O., Kumar, N. (2009). Aerosol characterization studies at Great Smoky Mountains National Park, summer, 2006, J Geophys Res, 114, doi:10.1029/2008JD011274

Saleeby, S. M., Cotton, W. R., Lowenthal, D. H., Borys, R. D., Wetzel, M. A. (2009). Influence of cloud condensation nuclei on orographic snowfall, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 48

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Chen, L.-W.A. (2009). Climate change – Characterization of black carbon and organic carbon air pollution emissions and evaluation of measurement methods Phase II: Characterization of black carbon and organic carbon source emissions, Desert Research Institute

Vega, E., Lowenthal, D. H., Ruiz, H., Reyes, E., Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Viana, M., Querol, X., Alastuey, A. (2009). Fine particle receptor modeling in the atmosphere of Mexico City, J.Air Waste Manage.Assoc., 59 (12), 1417-1428

2008
Molina, L. T., Kolb, C. E., Slott, R. S. (Eds.) Gertler, A. W., Lowenthal, D. H., Labib, M., Safar, Z. (2008). , In Air Quality in Megacities, American Geophysical Union Monograph Series: Cairo, Egypt

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Magliano, K. L. (2008). Size-resolved aerosol chemical concentrations at rural and urban sites in Central California, USA Atmos. Res., 88, 679-683

Gillies, J. A., Abu-Allaban, M., Gertler, A. W., Lowenthal, D. H., Jennison, B., Goodrich, A. (2008). Enhanced PM2.5 source apportionment using chemical mass balance receptor modeling and scanning electron microscopy, Jordan J. Earth & Environ. Sci., 1, 1-9

Watson, J. G., Chen, L.-W.A., Chow, J. C., Doraiswamy, P., Lowenthal, D. H. (2008). Source apportionment: findings from the U.S. Supersite Program, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 58, 256-288

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Magliano, K. (2008). Size-resolved aerosol chemical concentrations at rural and urban sites in Central California, USA, Atmos.Res., 243-252

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Park, K., Doraiswamy, P., Bowers, K., Bode, R. (2008). Continuous and filter-based measurements of PM2.5 nitrate and sulfate at the Fresno Supersite, Environ.Mon.Assess, 144 (1), 179-189

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Magliano, K. (2008). Estimating aerosol light scattering at the Fresno Supersite, Atmos.Environ., 42 (6), 1186-1196

Watson, J. G., Chen, L.-W.A., Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Doraiswamy, P. (2008). Source apportionment: Findings from the U.S. Supersite Program, J.Air Waste Manage.Assoc., 58 (2), 265-288

2007
Abu-Allaban, M., Lowenthal, D. H., Gertler, A. W., Labib, M. (2007). Sources of PM10 and PM2.5 in Cairo’s ambient air, Environ. Monit. Assess., 133, 417-425

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Park, K., Lowenthal, D. H., Robinson, N. F., Magliano, K. A. (2007). Comparison of Particle Light Scattering and Fine Particulate Matter Mass in Central California, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 56 (4), 398-410

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Chen, L.-W.A., Zielinska, B. K., Rinehart, L. R., Magliano, K. L. (2007). Evaluation of Organic Markers for Chemical Mass Balance Source Apportionment at the Fresno Supersite, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7 (7), 1741-1754

Haboub, A., Hallett, J., Lowenthal, D. H. (2007). Thermal volatilization properties of atmospheric nanoparticles, Environ. Monit. Assess., 134 (1-3), 191-197

Pitchford, M. L., Malm, W. C., Schichtel, B., Kumar, N., Lowenthal, D. H., Hand, J. (2007). Revised algorithm for estimating light extinction from IMPROVE particle speciation data, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 57, 1326-1336

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Chen, L.-W.A., Zielinska, B. K., Mazzoleni, L., Magliano, K. (2007). Evaluation of organic markers for chemical mass balance source apportionment at the Fresno supersite, Atmos.Chem.Phys., 1741-1754, 7

Pitchford, M. L., Malm, W., Schichtel, B., Kumar, N., Lowenthal, D. H., Hand, J. (2007). Revised Algorithm for Estimating Light Extinction from IMPROVE Particle Speciation Data, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 57 (11), 1326-1336

2006
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Chen, L.-W.A., Magliano, K. L. (2006). Particulate Carbon Measurements in California’s San Joaquin Valley, Chemosphere, 62 (3), 337-348

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Chen, L.-W.A., Zielinska, B. K., Rinehart, L. R., Magliano, K. L. (2006). Evaluation of organic markers for chemical mass balance source apportionment at the Fresno Supersite, Atmos Chem Phys Discuss, 6 (10), 341-10-372

Hindman, E. H., Borys, R. D., Lowenthal, D. H., Philip, N. (2006). Long-term wintertime aerosol, cloud and precipitation measurements in the northern Colorado Rocky mountains, Atmos Res, 82, 194-202

Lowenthal, D. H., Kumar, N. (2006). Light Scattering from Sea Salt Aerosols in IMPROVE, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 56, 636-642

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Park, K., Robinson, N. F., Lowenthal, D. H., Magliano, K. (2006). Comparison of Particle Light Scattering and Fine Particulate Matter Mass in Central California, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 56 (4), 398-410

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Chen, L.-W.A., Tropp, R. J., Park, K., Magliano, K. (2006). PM2.5 and PM10 mass measurements in California’s San Joaquin Valley, Aerosol Sci.Technol., 40, 796-810

Chow, J. C., Chen, L.-W.A., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Magliano, K., Turkiewicz, K., Lehrman, D. (2006). PM2.5 chemical composition and spatiotemporal variability during the California Regional PM10/PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS), J.Geophys Res.- Atmospheres (D10), 1-17, 111

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Kreisberg, N., Hering, S., Stolzenburg, M. (2006). Variations of nanoparticle concentrations at the Fresno supersite, Sci.Total Environ., 358, 178-187

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Park, K., Lowenthal, D. H. (2006). Nanoparticle and ultrafine particle events at the Fresno Supersite, J.Air Waste Manage.Assoc., 56, 417-430

2005
El-Zanan, H. S., Lowenthal, D. H., Zielinska, B. K., Chow, J. C., Kumar, N. (2005). Determination of the organic aerosol mass to organic carbon ratio in IMPROVE samples, Chemosphere, 60 (4), 485-496

Ryan, P. A., Lowenthal, D. H., Kumar, N. (2005). Improved light extinction reconstruction in interagency monitoring of protected visual environments, J Air & Waste Manage Assoc, 55, 1751-1759

Chow, J. C., Chen, L.-W.A., Lowenthal, D. H., Doraiswamy, P., Park, K., Kohl, S. D., Trimble, D. L., Watson, J. G. (2005). California Regional PM10/PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS) – Initial data analysis of field program measurements, Desert Research Institute

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Magliano, K. (2005). Loss of PM2.5 nitrate from filter samples in central California, J.Air Waste Manage.Assoc., 55, 1158-1168

2004
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Kuhns, H. D., Etyemezian, V. R., Lowenthal, D. H., Crow, D., Kohl, S. D., Engelbrecht, J. P., Green, M. C. (2004). Source Profiles for Industrial, Mobile, and Area Sources in the Big Bend Regional Aerosol Visibility and Observational (BRAVO) Study, Chemosphere, 54 (2), 185-208

Lowenthal, D. H., Borys, R. D., Choularton, T. W., Bower, K. N., Flynn, M. J., Gallagher, M. W. (2004). Parameterization of the cloud droplet – sulfate relationship, Atmos. Environ., 38 (2), 287-292

Wetzel, M. A., Meyers, M. B., Borys, R. D., McAnelly, R., Cotton, W., Rossi, A., Frisbie, P., Nadler, D., Lowenthal, D. H., Cohn, S. A., Brown, W. O. (2004). Mesoscale snowfall prediction and verification in mountainous terrain, Weather and Forecasting, 19, 806-828

Lowenthal, D. H., Kumar, N. (2004). Variation of Mass Scattering Efficiencies in IMPROVE, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 54, 926-934

2003
Borys, R. D., Lowenthal, D. H., Cohn, S. A., Brown, W. O. (2003). Mountaintop and radar measurements of anthropogenic aerosol effects on snow growth and snowfall rate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (10)

Lowenthal, D. H., Kumar, N. (2003). PM2.5 Mass and Light Extinction Reconstruction in IMPROVE, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 53, 1109-1120

Lowenthal, D. H., Kumar, N., Hand, J. L., Kreidenweis, S., Collett, J. L., Lee, T., Day, D. (2003). Hygroscopic organic aerosols during BRAVO?, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 53, 1273-1279

2002
Abu-Allaban, M., Gertler, A. W., Lowenthal, D. H. (2002). A preliminary apportionment of the sources of ambient PM10, PM2.5, and VOCs in Cairo, Atmos. Environ., 36 , 5549-5557

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Richards, L. W. (2002). Comparability between PM2.5 and Light Scattering Measurements, Environ. Monitoring and Assessment, 79 (1), 29-45

Gonzales, A., Perez, J. C., Herrera, F., Rosa, R., Wetzel, M. A., Borys, R. D., Lowenthal, D. H. (2002). Stratocumulus properties retrieval method from NOAH-AVHRR data based on the discretization of cloud parameters, Intl. J. Rem. Sens., 23 , 627-645

Teague, S. V., Sagebiel, J. A., Purcell, R. G., Rogers, C. F., Lowenthal, D. H., Zielinska, B. K. (2002). A PM2.5 inlet impactor designed for a high flow application, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 36 , 1029-1032

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Stolzenburg, M. R., Kreisberg, N. M., Hering, S. V. (2002). Particle Size Relationships at the Fresno Supersite, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 52 (7), 822-827

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Robinson, N. F., Cahill, C. F., Blumenthal, D. L. (2002). Simulating Changes in Source Profiles from Coal-Fired Power Stations: Use in Chemical Mass Balance of PM2.5 in the Mt. Zirkel Wilderness, Energy & Fuels, 16 (2 ), 311-324

Abu-Allaban, M., Gertler, A. W., Lowenthal, D. H. (2002). A Preliminary Apportionment of the Sources of Ambient PM10, PM2.5, and VOCs in Cairo, Atmos. Environ., 36 (35), 5549-5557

Lowenthal, D. H., Borys, R. D., Wetzel, M. A. (2002). Aerosol distributions and cloud interactions at a mountaintop laboratory, J. Geophys. Res., 107 (D18), AAC 1-1-AAC 1-6

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Richards, L. (2002). Comparability between PM 2.5 and light scattering measurements, Environ. Mon. Assess, 79 (1), 29-45

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Stolzenburg, M., Kreisberg, N., Hering, S. (2002). Particle size relationships at the Fresno supersite, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 52 (7), 822-827

2001
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Crow, D., Lowenthal, D. H., Merrifield, T. (2001). Comparison of IMPROVE and NIOSH Carbon Measurements, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 23-34

Hansen, A. D., Lowenthal, D. H., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G. (2001). Black Carbon Aerosol at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 51 (4), 593-600

Mazzera, D. M., Lowenthal, D. H., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Grubisic, V. (2001). PM10 Measurements at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, Atmos. Environ., 35, 1891-1902

2000
Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Watson, J. G., Kohl, S. D., Hinsvark, B. A., Hackett, E. I., McCormack, J. K. (2000). Light Absorption by Black Sand Dust, Appl. Opt., 39 (27), 4232-4236

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Bowen, J. L., Lowenthal, D. H., Hering, S., Ouchida, P., Oslund, W. (2000). Air quality measurements from the Fresno Supersite, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 50 (8), 1321-1334

Borys, R. D., Lowenthal, D. H., Mitchell, D. L. (2000). The relationships among cloud microphysics, chemistry, and precipitation rate in cold mountain clouds, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2593-2602

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Green, M. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Torres, G., Bates, B. (2000). Cross-Border Transport and Spatial Variability of Suspended Particles in Mexicali and California’s Imperial Valley, Atmos. Environ., 34 (11 ), 1833-1843

Lowenthal, D. H., Borys, R. D. (2000). Sources of microphysical variation in marine stratiform clouds in the North Atlantic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1491-1494

Lowenthal, D. H., Chow, J. C., Mazzera, D. M., Watson, J. G., Mosher, B. W. (2000). Aerosol vanadium at McMurdo Station, Antarctica: implications for Dye 3, Greenland, Atmos. Environ., 34, 677-679

Perez, J. C., Herrera, F., Rosa, F., Gonzalez, A., Wetzel, M. A., Borys, R. D., Lowenthal, D. H. (2000). Retrieval of marine stratus cloud droplet size from NOAA-AVHRR nighttime imagery, Remote Sensing of the Environment, 73, 31-45

Lowenthal, D. H., Watson, J. G., Saxena, P. (2000). Contributions to light extinction during project MOHAVE, Atmospheric Environment, 34 (15), 2351-2359

1999
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., DuBois, D. W., Green, M. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Kohl, S. D., Egami, R. T., Gillies, J. A., Rogers, C. F., Frazier, C. A., Cates, W. (1999). Middle- and neighborhood-scale variations of PM10 source contributions in Las Vegas, Nevada, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 49 (6), 641-654

Richards, L. W., Alcorn, S. H., McDade, C., Couture, T., Lowenthal, D. H., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G. (1999). Optical properties of the San Joaquin Valley aerosol collected during the 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study, Atmos. Environ., 33 (29), 4787-4795

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Hackney, R., Magliano, K. L., Lehrman, D., Smith, T. (1999). Temporal variations of PM2.5, PM10, and gaseous precursors during the 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study in central California, JA&WMA, 49 (9), PM16-PM24

Mazzera, D. M., Hayes, T., Lowenthal, D. H., Zielinska, B. K. (1999). Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, Sci. Total Environ., 229, 65-71

1998
Borys, R. D., Lowenthal, D. H., Wetzel, M. A., Herrara, F., Gonzalez, A. (1998). Chemical and microphysical properties of marine stratiform cloud in the North Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 22073-22085

Lowenthal, D. H., Chow, J. C., Mazzera, D. M. (1998). PM10 Source Apportionment at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, Antarctic Journal, 32, 165-167

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Egami, R. T., Solomon, P., Thuillier, R., Magliano, K., Ranzieri, A. (1998). Spatial and temporal variations of particulate precursor gases and photochemical reaction products during SJVAQS/AUSPEX ozone episodes, Atmospheric Environment, 32 (16), 2835-2844

1997
Watson, J. G., Ashbaugh, L., Casuccio, G., Chow, J. C., Francis, S., Gaffney, P., Fine, J., Gill, T., Gillies, J. A., Higashi, R., Hopke, P., Kennedy, A., Lowenthal, D. H., Magliano, K., Roth, P., Sagebiel, J., Shimp, D., VanCuren, R., Zielinska, B. K., Ziman, S., Zobeck, T. (1997). The Fugitive Dust Characterization Study (FDCS): Potential methods and research needs for receptor methods to distinguish among fugitive dust sources

Watson, J. G., Robinson, N. F., Lewis, C., Coulter, C., Chow, J. C., Fujita, E. M., Lowenthal, D. H., Conner, T., Henry, R., Willis, R. (1997). Chemical mass balance receptor model version 8 (CMB) user’s manual

1996
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Countess, R. (1996). Sources and chemistry of PM 10 aerosol in Santa Barbara County, CA, Atmospheric Environment, 30 (9), 1489-1499

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lu, Z., Lowenthal, D. H., Frazier, C., Solomon, P., Thuillier, R., Magliano, K. (1996). Descriptive analysis of PM 2.5 and PM 10 at regionally representative locations during SJVAQS/AUSPEX, Atmospheric Environment, 30 (12), 2079-2112

Lowenthal, D. H., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Dipple, W., Mazzera, D. (1996). PM 10 source apportionment at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, EM, 2 (June), 28-30

Lurmann, F., Kumar, N., Loomis, C., Cass, G., Seinfeld, J., Lowenthal, D. H., Reynolds, S. (1996). PM-10 air quality models for application in the San Joaquin Valley PM-10 SIP, Final report, prepared for San Joaquin Valleywide Air Pollution Study Agency, Sacramento, CA: by Sonoma Technology, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA, STI-94250-1595-FR, ARB Contract No. 94-1PM

1995
Chow, J. C., Fairley, D., Watson, J. G., de Mandel, R., Fujita, E. M., Lowenthal, D. H., Lu, Z., Frazier, C., Long, G., Cordova, J. (1995). Source apportionment of wintertime PM 10 at San Jose, CA, J. Environ. Eng, 21, 378-387

Lowenthal, D. H., Rogers, C. F., Saxena, P., Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C. (1995). Sensitivity of estimated light extinction coefficients to model assumptions and measurement errors, Atmospheric Environment, 29 (7), 751-766

1994
Lowenthal, D. H., Zielinska, B. K., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Gautam, M., Ferguson, D., Neuroth, G., Stevens, K. (1994). Characterization of heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions, Atmospheric Environment, 28 (4), 731-743

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Lu, Z., Fujita, E. M., Lowenthal, D. H., Lawson, D. (1994). Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM 10 during the Southern California Air Quality Study, Aerosol Sci. Technol, 21 (1), 1-36

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Pritchett, L. C., Frazier, C., Neuroth, G., Robbins, R. (1994). Differences in the carbon composition of source profiles for diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicles, Atmospheric Environment, 28 (15), 2493-2505

1993
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Solomon, P., Magliano, K., Ziman, S., Richards, L. (1993). PM 10 and PM 2.5 compositions in California’s San Joaquin Valley, Aerosol Sci. Technol, 18 (2), 105-128

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Fujita, E. M., Lowenthal, D. H., Lu, Z., Frazier, C., Fairley, D., de Mandel, R., Long, G., Cordova, J. (1993). Results from the 1991-92 pilot study of wintertime PM 10 in the San Francisco Bay Area

Gertler, A. W., Lowenthal, D. H., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G. (1993). Receptor modeling of SCAQS volatile organic compounds, In Proceedings, Southern California Air Quality Study Data Analysis, 103-105, Air & Waste Management Association: Pittsburgh, PA

1992
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Solomon, P., Magliano, K., Ziman, S., Richards, L. (1992). PM 10 source apportionment in California’s San Joaquin Valley, Atmospheric Environment, 26A (18), 3335-3354

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Lu, Z., Frazier, C., Pritchett, L. C., Hinsvark, B. (1992). San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study (SJVAQS)/Atmospheric Utility Signatures – Predictions and Experiment (AUSPEX) monitoring and analysis for aerosols and visibility, Volume III: Aerosol measurements and data bases, Final report

Lowenthal, D. H., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Neuroth, G., Robbins, R., Shafritz, B., Countess, R. (1992). The effects of collinearity on the ability to determine aerosol contributions from diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicles using the chemical mass balance model, Atmospheric Environment, 26A (13), 2341-2351

1991
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Hinsvark, B., Frazier, C., Lowenthal, D. H., Chandra, S., Pritchett, L. C. (1991). Standard operating procedures for the Imperial Valley/Mexicali PM 10 source apportionment study

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Egami, R. T., Bowen, J. L., Frazier, C., Gertler, A. W., Lowenthal, D. H., Fung, K. (1991). Measurements of dry deposition parameters for the California Acid Deposition Monitoring Program

Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Frazier, C., Lowenthal, D. H. (1991). Program plan for an Imperial Valley/Mexicali PM10 source apportionment study

1990
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Pritchett, L. C., Richards, L. (1990). San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study, Phase 2: PM 10 modeling and analysis, Volume I: Receptor modeling source apportionment

Frazier, C., Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C., Robinson, N. F., Bowen, J. L., Gertler, A. W., Lowenthal, D. H., Fung, K. (1990). Data processing and data validation operations manual for the California Acid Deposition Monitoring Program: Meteorology, ozone, and dry deposition data

Conference Proceedings
2016
Mazzoleni, L. R., Zhao, Y., Samburova, V., Hallar, A. G., Lowenthal, D. H. (2016). Unraveling the Complexity of Atmospheric Aerosol: Insights from Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016: Vienna, Austria, April 17, 2016-April 22, 2016, Abstract EGU2016-15401

Blossey, P. N., Moore, M., Kuang, Z., Muhlbauer, A., Lowenthal, D. H., Hallar, A. G., McCubbin, I. B., David, R. O., Borys, R. D., Wiegele, A., Schneider, M., Risi, C. (2016). Isotopic Fractionation in Wintertime Orographic Precipitation, 17th Conference on Mountain Meteorology: Burlington, VT, June 27, 2016-July 1, 2016

2015
David, R. O., Lowenthal, D. H., Hallar, A. G., McCubbin, I. B., Avallone, L., Mace, G., Wang, Z. (2015). Ice Formation and Growth in Orographically-Enhanced Mixed-Phase Clouds, Abstract EGU2015-7776, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015: Vienna, Austrai, April 17, 2015

Blossey, P. N., Moore, M., Kuang, Z., Muhlbauer, A., Lowenthal, D. H., Hallar, A. G., McCubbin, I. B., Borys, R. D., Wiegele, A., Schneider, M., Risi, C. (2015). Isotopic Fractionation in Snow (IFRACS) at Storm Peak Laboratory, 2015 AGU Fall Meeting: San Francisco, CA, December 12, 2015

Mazzoleni, L. R., Samburova, V., Zhao, Y., Dalbec, M. M., Habib, D., Brege, M. A., Saranjampour, P., Hallar, A. G., Zielinska, B. K., Lowenthal, D. H. (2015). Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry fragmentation analysis for functional groups and structural insights of WSOC collected at the Storm Peak Laboratory, European Aerosol Conference (EAC 2015): Milan, Italy, September 6, 2015

2014
David, R. O., Lowenthal, D. H., Hallar, A. G. (2014). The role of mesoscale dynamics on microphysics in orographic cloud during CAMPS, Poster #223, presented at the American Meteorological Society 14th Conference on Cloud Physics and Anthony Slingo Symposium: Boston, MA, July 7, 2014

Lowenthal, D. H., David, R. O., Borys, R. D., Hallar, A. G., McCubbin, I. B. (2014). Snow growth studies at Storm Peak Laboratory, Abstract SES-137_2/180 presented at the Global Fair and Workshop on Long-Term Observing Systems of Mountain Social-Ecological Systems: Reno, NV, July 16, 2014

David, R. O., Lowenthal, D. H., Hallar, A. G., McCubbin, I. B., Avallone, L. (2014). Mountaintop Cloud Microphysical Properties: A Comparison between Storm Peak Laboratory and the University of Wyoming King Air during CAMPS, Abstract SES-137_1 presented at the Global Fair and Workshop on Long-Term Observing Systems of Mountain Social-Ecological Systems: Reno, NV, July 16, 2014

David, R. O., Lowenthal, D. H., Hallar, A. G., McCubbin, I. B., Avallone, L., Mace, G., Wang, Z. (2014). A Comparison between Airborne and Mountaintop Cloud Microphysics, Abstract A24C-06, 2014 AGU Fall Meeting: San Francisco, CA, December 15, 2014

Samburova, V., Hallar, A. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Mazzoleni, L. R., Murray, A., Yang, X., Zielinska, B. K. (2014). Analysis of Atmospheric Biological and Organic Aerosols Collected at High Elevation Mountain Site (Storm Peak Laboratory), Abstract SES-138/216 (Presentation), Global Fair and Workshop on Long-Term Observing Systems of Mountain Social-Ecological Systems: Reno, NV, July 16, 2014

Hallar, A. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Clegg, S. L., Samburova, V., Taylor, N., Mazzoleni, L. R., Zielinska, B. K., Kristensen, T. B., McCubbin, I. B. (2014). Chemical, Biological, and Hygroscopic Properties of Aerosols at Storm Peak Laboratory, 2014 Symposium on Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics at Mountain Site: Steamboat Springs, CO, August 11, 2014

Watson, J. G., Chen, L.-W.A., Chow, J. C., Wang, X., Sumlin, B. J., Lowenthal, D. H., Robles, J. A., Zimmermann, R. (2014). Multi-wavelength optical measurement to enhance thermal/optical analysis for carbonaceous aerosol, Proceedings of the International Aerosol Conference: Busan, Korea, August 29, 2014

2013
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Chen, L.-W.A., Lowenthal, D. H. (2013). Effects of Black and Organic Carbon and Emission Inventory Development, The Eastern Sierra Chapter, Air & Waste Management Association: held at DRI, Reno, NV, April 5, 2013

Chen, L.-W.A., Wang, X., Yang, X., Riggio, G. M., Lowenthal, D. H., Watson, J. G., Chow, J. C. (2013). Mass Spectrometric Profiles of Combustion Aerosols for Chemical Mass Balance Source Apportionment, GAef Workshop for Fossil Fuel and Biomass Combustion: Chemical Properties, Transformation, and Health Effects: Prague, Czech Republic, August 31, 2013-September 1, 2013

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Chen, L.-W.A., Lowenthal, D. H. (2013). Effects of Carbonaceous Aerosol on Climate, Visibility, Air Pollution, and Human Health, Presented at National Tsing Hua University: at Hsinchu City, Taiwan, April 16, 2013

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H. (2013). Mass Reconstruction Methods for PM2.5 Data Validation, The Workshop on Multi-pollutant/Multi-effect Air Quality Management, Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center: Shanghai, China, September 25, 2013

Mazzoleni, L. R., Habib, D., Zhao, Y., Dalbec, M., Samburova, V., Hallar, A. G., Zielinska, B. K., Lowenthal, D. H. (2013). Functional Groups and Structural Insights of Water-Soluble Organic Carbon using Ultrahigh Resolution FT-ICR Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Abstract A33I-04, presented at AGU Fall Meeting: San Francisco, CA, December 9, 2013

Zhao, Y., Mazzoleni, L. R., Samburova, V., Hallar, A. G., Zielinska, B. K., Lowenthal, D. H., Kohl, S. D. (2013). Multivariate Analysis of Water-Soluble Organic Carbon Molecular Formulas in Daily Samples, Abstract A31D-0122. Presented at AGU Fall Meeting: San Francisco, CA, December 9, 2013

2012
Chirokova, G., Hallar, A. G., Lowenthal, D. H., McCubbin, I. B., Avallonne, L., Mace, G. G., Shupe, M., Oolman, L. D. (2012). Vertical distribution of liquid water in mixed-phase clouds from in-situ ground and airborne measurements during simultaneous CAMPS and StormVEx field campaigns, American Meteorological Society: Steamboat Springs, CO, August 20, 2012

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H. (2012). Methods to reconstruct PM mass, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences: Xi’an, China, September 19, 2012

Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H. (2012). Evaluation of PM2.5 and PM10 mass closure formulae, Air & Waste Management Association: Whitefish, MT, September 28, 2012

Lowenthal, D. H., Zielinska, B. K., Collins, D., Taylor, N., Alexander, L., Kumar, N. (2012). Aerosol Chemistry and Hygroscopic Growth in U.S. National Parks, Air & Waste Management Association Specialty Conference Aerosol and Atmospheric Optics: Visibility and Air Pollution: Whitefish, MT, September 24, 2012

Mazzoleni, L. R., Saranjampour, P., Dalbec, M. M., Samburova, V., Hallar, A. G., Zielinska, B. K., Lowenthal, D. H. (2012). Molecular Composition of Water-Soluble Organic Carbon in Nonurban Aerosols, American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) 31st Annual Meeting: Minneapolis, MN, October 8, 2012

Novosselov, I., Gorder, R., Ogren, J., McCubbin, I. B., Lowenthal, D. H., Purcell, R. G. (2012). CFD Analysis of Ground-based Inlets for Atmospheric Aerosol Sampling, American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) 31st Annual: Minneapolis, MN, October 8, 2012

2010
McCubbin, I. B., Hallar, A. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Borys, R. D., Obrist, D. (2010). Overview of Storm Peak Laboratory, Symposium on Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics at Mountain Sites: Interlaken, Switzerland, June 2010.

2004
Tropp, R. J., Engelbrecht, J. P., Kohl, S. D., Lowenthal, D. H., DuBois, D. W., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Countess, R. J., Countess, S. J., Michel, E. L. (2004). Assessment of PM2.5 Chemical Speciation Results for Texas, Air and Waste Management Association (A&WMA) Symposium on Air Quality Measurement Methods and Technology: Research Triangle Park, NC, April 22, 2004

1998
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., DuBois, D. W., Green, M. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Kohl, S. D., Egami, R. T., Gillies, J. A., Rogers, C. F., Frazier, C., Cates, W. (1998). Middle- and neighborhood-scale variations of PM 10 source contributions in Las Vegas, Nevada, 443-460, Proceedings, Health Effects of Particulate Matter in Ambient Air

Chow, J. C., Koutrakis, P. (Eds.) Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Hackney, R., Magliano, K. L., Lehrman, D., Smith, T. (1998). Temporal variations of PM2.5, PM10, and gaseous precursors during the 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study in Central California, Proceedings, PM2.5: A Fine Particle Standard, 59-77, Air & Waste Management Association: Pittsburgh, PA

1997
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Richards, L., Solomon, P., Magliano, K. (1997). Size-resolved particle and light extinction measurements during IMS95, 80-85, Proceedings, Visual Air Quality: Aerosols and Global Radiation Balance

1990
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Pritchett, L. C., Lowenthal, D. H., Frazier, C., Neuroth, G., Evans, K., Moon, D. (1990). Wintertime visibility in Phoenix, Arizona, AWMA 83rd National Meeting: Pittsburgh, PA, June 24, 1990-June 29, 1990, Paper 90-66.6.