Earth and Ecosystem scientists conduct a wide range of studies in earth sciences bringing together expertise in geology, geomorphology, geochronology, and pedology. Scientists use soil science, geology and geomorphology to help the military better identify realistic training locations. In addition, scientists research basic processes underlying creation of arid landscapes and how these landscapes may evolve in response to environmental change and land use practices. Finally, our scientist are attempting to relate long-term geologic processes such as isostatic rebound with presence of areas that may be used for geothermal energy exploration. Earth scientists within DRI make use of advanced techniques including ground penetrating radar (GPR), light detection and ranging (LiDAR) in combination with geographic information systems (GIS) and advanced 3-D visualization. In addition, Earth and Ecosystem scientists have developed novel dating methods using luminescence that is being applied in a wide range of geological and archaeological studies.