CIWAS has many ongoing programs and completed projects that further the Center’s mission to increase technical capacity and provide research and training support to improve the long-term sustainability of WASH interventions in developing countries. Programs include:
In developing countries, insufficient human-resource capacity related to WASH remains one of the most significant barriers to providing effective and sustainable services. In most developing countries, there are large, experienced international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that operate in the WASH sector, but the local field staff often lack the necessary technical human-resource capacity to effectively implement WASH interventions. To help NGOs and governments address these human -resource capacity needs, DRI, Drexel University, and University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) are collaborating to provide technical capacity training and action research to field staff across Africa through a series of competency-based modules. Courses are taught through a hybrid model of online instruction complemented by face-to-face teaching sessions and field research. Faculty from African universities are engaged as guest lecturers with an objective to build the capacity of local higher education institutions to deliver the training needing for sustainable WASH service provision.
DRI-UDS WASH Center
University for Development Studies and DRI Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Center. DRI signed a memorandum of understanding with the University for Development Studies (UDS) in Northern Ghana to establish a first-in-the-region WASH Center at UDS. Through the Center, DRI and UDS are working to address important research, knowledge and technical capacity gaps related to WASH and water resource management specific to West Africa. In January 2018, DRI and UDS cohosted the first international conference through the WASH Center: Sustainable WASH and Water Security: Successes, Lessons Learned and the Way Forward (https://thebftonline.com/business/education/lack-of-toilet-facilities-in-basic-schools-encourages-open-defecation/).
The majority of rural communities throughout the developing world struggle to provide a consistent and safe water supply due to lack of funding and qualified staff, as well as week governance, poor tariff settings, and the lack of an effective supply chain for spare parts and supplies. The Circuit Rider program, hosted by DRI, is a proven simple and cost effective model to increase the sustainability of rural WASH systems. In the Circuit Rider model a small group of qualified WASH technicians rotate through a circuit of communities providing advice and training to local operators on issues of sustainability, governance, treatment technologies, operations, and maintenance. To further build local capacity for sustainable WASH systems, CIWAS is providing capacity building on long-term sustainability of WASH services using the Circuit Rider methodology in priority CIWAS countries. Currently, the Circuit Rider methodology is being implemented in rural northern Ghana, central Chile and Honduras.
CIWAS is the host of the Universities WASH Network whose mission is to increase communication and coordination among universities in the United States and their external partners engaged in global WASH and provide opportunities for collaborative learning to stakeholders around the world. The Network’s mission is to increase human resource capacity for WASH in developing countries through integrated education and research programs. These programs will provide the evidence base, training and advocacy to empower governments, NGOs and other stakeholders in communities and countries of greatest need to achieve universal access to safe, affordable and sustainable drinking water, sanitation and hygiene.
DRI has worked with the Liberian government to increase their capacity for sustainable WASH service provision for improved public health outcomes. A period of recovery and resiliency building was instituted following Liberia being declared free from Ebola. Part of the response by UNICEF Liberia was to address gaps in WASH in health facilities, as well as some communities identified during the Ebola response. The purpose of the project was to carry out hydrogeological/geophysical investigations and surveys for the siting, drilling and supervision of boreholes in selected health care facilities. DRI was selected to partner with UNICEF to undertake the hydrogeological/geophysical surveys and assist with well siting. Working with WHO and the Ministry of Health, DRI also hosted a workshop to build the capacity of the Liberian government on water quality monitoring and support the government in developing the country’s water quality standards and baseline water quality.
CIWAS/CRS/UDS Menstrual Hygiene Project
CIWAS partnered with Catholic Relief Services (CRS) and the University for Development Studies (UDS) in Ghana to support CRS’s Integrated Sanitation, Hygiene, and Nutrition for Education (I-SHINE) project in 138 communities in Northern Ghana. The focus of the project is to encourage school attendance by improving WASH behaviors. CIWAS staff and students from the UNR Students' Association for International Water Issues led field research to better understand constraints to school attendance amongst girls during their menses. A public event was then held in Ghana to share findings and results with other stakeholders. (http://www.dri.edu/newsroom/news-releases/5356-increasing-school-attendance-by-improving-wash-access)
Ghana Algal Blooms
DRI currently works with the government of Ghana to improve WASH sustainability and the management of increasingly stressed water resources in the country. DRI is collaborating with the Ghana Water Company Limited and the Ghana Standards Authority to establish the presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the water supply provided by the Ghana Water Company Ltd to the cities of Accra and Kumasi.
Indoor Air Pollution in Ghana
Indoor Air Pollution in Ghana
According to the World Bank the majority of the Ghanaian population relies on biomass (wood, charcoal, dung and crop residue) for cooking, causing high concentrations of smoke and carbon dioxide in traditional homes. Worldwide, the burning of solid fuels is thought to be the largest source of indoor air pollution. Soot from indoor biomass burning causes more than 50% of premature deaths due to pneumonia among children under age 5 and 3.8 million premature deaths annually due to diseases including stroke, heart diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. CIWAS is collaborating with government and NGOs in Ghana to address this issue. CIWAS has assembled a highly qualified team of scientists and analysts from across DRI that have participated in many major air quality studies over the past few decades. Projects have included sample collection and analysis, quality assurance, data validation, data management, and subsequent data interpretation and reporting, and this experience will help DRI support Ghana in addressing this critical public health challenge.